If a greater loss of teeth occurs and fixed prosthetic implants are not possible, removable prosthetics or dentures gives the opportunity to bring back a healthy bite and a beautiful smile. Removable or combined prosthetics offers an excellent jaw rehabilitation and recovers compromised functionality of speech and bite, in addition to giving a great aesthetic solution.
They are made separately for the upper and the lower jaw when the loss of all natural teeth in one of the jaws occurs. Complete dentures are composed of a base on which porcelain teeth are inserted. The base is made of a pink acrylate which fits the surrounding epithelia, thus supporting the teeth aesthetics. The purpose of the base is to distribute the bite forces which appear on the epithelia and the bone base when chewing. As the epithelia itself cannot endure great load, it is necessary for the base to be as wide as possible in order to distribute the bite forces on the widest surface possible, achieving a safer and more comfortable bite. The upper base covers the entire palate, and the lower base is shaped as a horse-shoe, leaving space for the tongue.
In order for the dentures to be comfortable and serve its normal function, it is necessary that it fits the position well. During chewing, the prosthesis should remain still and its base should be well shaped, with sufficient bones remaining. In case there is an uneven resorption (recession) of the ridge after the loss of tooth, the ridge on which the prosthesis is placed can become uneven and bumpy and prevent the prosthesis from adhering in a correct way. This condition is treated surgically, removing the unnecessary bone tissue and providing an even base necessary for the preparation of the prosthesis.
It is necessary to remove the full dentures on daily basis, usually before going to sleep. It needs to be washed and disinfect using the appropriate products.
They are made when there is a certain number of natural teeth in the jaw enabling the prosthesis to adhere. The remaining teeth should be healthy, while damaged teeth should be treated by applying dental crowns or bridges or they should be completely taken out if the damage is substantial. Partial dentures are fixed to the remaining teeth to remain stable and still during chewing and speaking, thus making it more comfortable to wear and less prone to moving and falling off. Unlike the complete detures where the bite force influences the epithelia, the partial denture transfers the load to the remaining teeth and removes the burden from the epithelia. The advantage of the partial denture is its ability to bear stronger bite forces without causing irritation.
Partial denture is composed of a frame made of precious alloy (wironit) and anchors or crowns (telescopes) which fix the prosthesis onto the supporting teeth which are connected in bridges. Anchors were used in the past, but a combined fixing (anchors and telescopes) is used nowadays to provide excellent functional (immobility during eating) as well as aesthetic results (bonds between the bridges are completely invisible).
The use of dentures is in a decrease, and the development of dental medicine and technology now enables people who have previously not been good candidates for the implant treatment to choose a long-term solution instead of implants.
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